您当前的位置:网站首页>炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百花齐放的季节但是对过敏性体质建议

炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百花齐放的季节但是对过敏性体质建议

2019-05-18 06:29:32 投稿作者:admin 围观人数:219 评论人数:0次

选修 10

Teach a man tofish

授人以渔

In 1985, therewas little rainfall in Ethiopia, which led to poor harvests and the death ofmany of the country’s cattle.

1985年,埃塞俄比亚简直没有降雨,这导致收成损毁,许多城市的牛畜逝世。

The gravity ofthe situation shocked Bob Geldof, an Irish musician,

事态的严峻性让鲍勃格尔多夫,一位爱尔兰音乐家震动,

so he organizeda charity concert called Live Aid to raise money for the victims of hunger inEthiopia.

所以他安排了一场名为现场协助的慈悲音乐会,为埃塞俄比亚饥馑受难者征集资金。

The concert tookplace on 13 July 1985 in two places - London and Philadelphia - and includedthe biggest stars of the time.

1985713日,音乐会在伦敦和费城两地举办,到会者包含了其时最红的巨星。

Geldof intendedthe concert to raise money for hungry relief and to make the public more awareof the problem.

格尔多夫想经过音乐会为抢救饥饿筹钱,并进步大众对该问题的认识。

In the end, $100million was raised, which was used to buy food and to provide help withdevelopment project in Ethiopia.

终究,筹措到了一亿美元,这些钱被用来购买食物以及为埃塞俄比亚的开展项目供给协助。

The concert alsomade the headlines around the world, and put great pressure on politicians andstatesmen to do something about the problem of the world hunger.

音乐会还得到了全国际的重视,这给政客们施加了巨大压力,迫使他们为国际的饥饿问题做一些作业。

Live Aid was in1985, and for many people in the developing world, disease and poverty arestill aserious problems.

现场协助音乐会发作在1985年,但对许多开展我国家的人来说,疾病和赤贫仍是严峻的问题。

According to theUnited Nations, ten million people die every year of starvation or problemrelated to having a poor diet.

依据联合国的资料,每年有一千万人死于饥饿和营养不良。

In fact, hungeris the world’s number one health risk, killing more people than any disease.

实际上,饥饿是全球头号健康要挟,致死的人比任何疾病都要多。

In wrestlingwith the dilemma of worldwide hunger, the United Nations set up an agencycalled the World Food Programme (WFP) in 1963.

为了抗击国际各地的饥馑,联合国于1963年景立了国际粮食方案署(WFP炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张)安排。

The WFP hasorganized a number of programmes, including the Food-for-Life programme, whichsends emergency food aid to countries during times of trouble;

国际粮食方案署现已安排了若干项目,包含:抢救生命粮食方案该方案为处于危机时刻的国家送去紧迫粮食协助;

theFood-for-Growth programme, which targets people most at ris四台甫楼k, such as babies,pregnant women and t北回归线he old people;

健康生长粮食方案---它首要以身处危险中的人作为方针,例如婴儿、孕妈妈和晚年人;

and theFood-for-Work programme, which helps people without jobs support themselves bygiving them work and paying them in food aid.

协助赋闲的人们坚持生计的以工贷赈方案---经过给他们作业,用食物协助付出他们的薪酬。

Throughprogrammes like these, the WFP has helped more than one billion people since itwas set up.

经过这样的方案,国际粮食方案署从其树立起,现已协助了十亿多人。

This is beyonddoubt an amazing achievement, but is it enough?

勿需怀疑,这是惊人的作用,可是这就满足了吗?

Today, somedeveloping countries in Africa, Asia and South America stand at a crossroads.

今日,非洲、亚洲和南美洲的一些开展我国家正处于要害时刻。

While they areseeing great development, they are still poorer than many countries in otherparts of the world,

当时它们正阅历巨大的开展,但一起它们依然比国际上许多其他国家要赤贫,

and there is adanger that they could fall further behind developed countries.

并且有进一步于落后发达国家的危险。

They need help,but the sad truth is that merely sending loaves of bread is not enough

它们需求协助,但不幸的实际是仅有食物协助是不行的。

It is only ashort-term solution to a long-term problem.

那仅仅是一个长时刻问题的短期处理办法。

There is asaying that goes “Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day. Teach a man tofish, and you feed him for a his l甲胎蛋白ife.”

有句俗话是这样说的:授人以鱼,三餐之需;授人以渔,毕生之用。

In order to finda permanent solution to this long-term problem, countries need to develop sothat they can either grow the food they need, or having enough money to buythis food on the world market.

为了找到处理这一长时刻问题的长久之计,国家需求开展以出产他们需求的食物,并有满足的钱在国际市场上购买这些食物。

What developingcountries really need to do is to stop poverty by fighting the causes of it.

开展我国家真实需求做的便是经过与赤贫的本源做奋斗来消除赤贫。

One way to helpa country develop is to improve its infrastructure.

这样做的办法之一便是改善一国的基础设备。

Theinfrastructure of a country is what makes everything run well, and it includesthings like transport, irrigation, electricity, telephones and schools.

一国的基础设备便是让全部杰出运作的设备,包含交通、灌溉、电力、电话和校园等。

These thingsprovide a framework for new jobs to be created, allowing people to helpthemselves so that they no longer need to depend on others.

这些作业假如开展起来,就会为人们创造就业时机,使得他们能够协助自己而不必依托别人。

Another way tohelp a country is through the development of private enterprise along with jobtraining in order to address the problem of unemployment.

协助一个国家的另一个办法是经过私营企业随同作业练习的开展处理赋闲问题。

For example, inAfghanistan, housewives and widows have been taught to sew clothing, which theycan sell for extra income.

例如,在阿富汗,家庭主妇和寡妇们被教授缝制衣服,这些衣服能够出售添加额定收入。

In easternNigeria, young people are being trained to use computer technology to developtheir problem-solving and communication skills, and to find new occupations inthe field of technology.

在尼日利亚东部,年青人承受练习,学习运用电脑技能来开展他们的处理问题和沟通的技能,并寻觅技能领域新的作业。

In South Africa,a community programme is providing training and help for people without jobs orhomes, so that they can learn to make works of art to sell to tourist

在南非,一项社区方案为赋闲和无家可归的人供给练习和协助,让他们用金属丝制造艺术品向游客出售。

Although this isa bit different from conventional businesses, the programme is growing fast,and many people have been quite successful in it.

虽然这有一点点不同于传统的商业,但它敏捷生长,许多人很成功。

Finally, we mustremember that the future of a country lies in the hands of its children.

终究,咱们有必要紧记一个国家的未来把握在孩子手中。

This is whyeducation and training for young people is so important.

这是为什么对年青一代的教育和练习如此重要。

There arehundreds of success stories from all over the developing world, showing that alot is being done to fight poverty,

在遍地的开展我国家有数以百计的成功故事,标明人们正在做许多作业与赤贫作奋斗,

yet we cannotpretend that the fight is over.

但咱们不能佯称奋斗现已完毕。

Poverty is stillkilling people.

赤贫依然在致人逝世。

However, thesesmall victories are a good start towards a better future, as they are not theresult of giving a man a single fish so that he can eat for a day.

可是谋妻有道之毒宠无良妃,这些小的胜利是通向更美好未来的杰出开端。因为它们不是授人以鱼,三餐之需的作用。

They are theresult of teaching a man to fish so that he can fill his belly for a lifetime.

它们是授人以渔的作用,让一个人能够终身填饱肚子。

 

A gift for thefuture

给未来的礼物

by Lin Wen

林文著

In the nextsever萍水相逢al decades, the world’s population will increase to about nine billionpeople.

据信,在未来的数十年中,国际人口将增加到大约九十亿。

This should setalarm bells ringing, since the bare fact is that, in order for everyone tosurvive, serious adjustments need to be made in worldwide development.

这应该给人们敲响了警钟,因为一个简略明了的实际是为了让每一个人生计,在全球开展方面有必要有严峻改动。

This developmentneeds to be different from past development, which polluted the environment andwasted natural resources.

这一开展应不同于曩昔的开展,曩昔的开展污染环境且糟蹋自然资源。

One possiblesolution to this problem now being discussed is sustainable development.

关于现在评论的这个问题,一种或许的处理办法便是可持续开展。

Sustainabledevelopment focuses on preserving the environment and natural resources.

可持续开展是长时刻规划,重视环境和维护自然资源。

It is all aboutcreating better health care, education, housing and improved standard of livingfor everyone.

它完全是为每一个人创造更好的保健、教育、住宅和改善的日子规范。

This is a simpleidea, but one that is hard to put into practice.

这是一个简略的主意,不过也是一个难于付诸实践的理念。

However, it issomething that we must do, because without sustainable development our futureand the lives of our children and our grandchildren will be in danger.

可是,这是咱们有必要要做的,因为没有可持续开展,咱们的未来和咱们的后代的生命将处于危险之中。

Nearlyeverything we do in our modern lives requires the use of Earth’s naturalresources.

在咱们的现代日子中,咱们做的简直每一件事都要用到地球的自然资源。

These naturalresources provide the energy to do many important things: for transport, forboiling water, and for powering electrical equipment.

这些自然资源为做许多重要的作业供给能量:运送、烧开水及为电器供电。

The list is almostendless.

这一列表简直是无穷无尽的。

For all thesethings, we mostly depend on fuels such as coal, gas and oil to produce energy.

为了能做一切这些作业,咱们首要依托燃料,如煤、天然气和石油来发作能量。

Coal, gas炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张 andoil are found underground.

煤、天然气和石油在地下找到。

Once deposits ofthese fuels are used up, they are gone.

一旦这些燃料的储量用光了,它们就没有了。

We are nowconsuming these fuels at a much higher rate than they are being produced.

咱们现在消耗这些燃料的速度要远远超出出产这些燃料的速度。

Some peoplebelieve that if this continues, oilfields and coal mines will become empty inthe future.

一些人信任假如这种情况持续下去,油田和煤层在将来将会干涸。

On top of this,burning these fuels produces carbon dioxide, which is harmful to theenvironment.

此外,焚烧这些燃料发作二氧化碳,而二氧化碳对环境有害。

Carbon dioxidecontributes to air, water and soil pollution and causes acid rain.

二氧化碳是形成空气、水和土壤污染的原因之一,形成酸雨。

This is why manypeople are pushing for the use of alternative energy sources.

这便是许多人正在强烈要求运用代替动力的原因。

Alternativeenergy sources can be used without running out.

代替动力不会耗尽。

Some examples ofthe alternatives are solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectricity.

一些可再生的动力例如有太阳能、风能和水电。

As people arebecoming more aware of the need to protect the environment, these types ofenergy are becoming more and more popular.

当人们变得愈加重视维护环境时,此类动力正变得日益受欢迎。

Solar energyuses the sun to provide heat, light, hot water and electricity.

太阳能用太阳来供给热、光、热水和电。

The most commonway to gather solar energy is to use a complex system of mirrors, pipes and astorage tank.

搜集太阳能的最一般的办法便是经过运用一个包含镜子、管子和储能槽的杂乱体系。

The solarradiation shines onto the mirrors and heats them as well as the pipes belowthem.

太阳照射到镜子上,加热镜子以及镜子下面的管子。

The pipes haveoil or water inside them, which is heated and sent to the storage tank untilneeded or used to produce electricity.

管子里有油或许水,加热后被送到储能槽里储存到需用时,亦或被用来发电。

In the past,wind power wes used to pump water and make flour from grains.

曩昔,风能被用来抽水和磨面粉。

Today, windpower is used to produce electricity.

今日,风能被用来发电。

Wind power unitsare placed at least thirty metres above the ground, where there is a lot ofwind.

风能设备被安装在地上以上至少30米的当地,在那里风力很大。

Of all therenewable energy sources, hydroelectricity is the oldest and most commonly.

在一切的可再生动力中,水电是最陈旧的,也是最遍及的。

Hydroelectricityuses the force of water flow to produce electricity, so power plants must beover a water source.

水电依托水活动的力来发电,因而电站有必要建在水源之上。

Developments intechnology have allowed us to store and send electricity from water power sothat it can be used by people not near the power source.

技能的开展答应咱们存储和运送水电,因而不住在水电站邻近的人们也能够运用它。

In many parts ofthe world, tentative steps are being taken to introduce these forms ofalternative energy.

在国际的许多当地,人们正采纳开端办法,来引入此类可再生动力。

For example,some people in Nigeria are training to use solar energy,

例如,尼日利亚的一些人承受练习运用太阳能;

and in CostaRica, people are now using hydroelectricity to provide power for their smallvillages.

在哥斯达黎加,人们正在用水电为他们的小村庄供电。

Many of thesecommunities did not have any form of electricity or power before this.

许多社区在运用这些动力从前,没有用过电。

The introductionof programmes like these will hopefully help end the systematic destruction ofthe environment and see alternative energy promoted around the world.

相似项目的引入将有期望协助完毕对环境的故意损坏,在全国际推行可再生动力。

This will meangood things for our future, our children’s future and our grandchildren’sfuture.

这对咱们及咱们后代的未来意味着功德。

 

Populationmovement in the USA

美国的人口活动

In this editionof American Living, we are looking at some population trends in the USA.

在这一版的《美国日子》中,咱们评论美国人口趋向。

Aging in the sun

在阳光下变老

Older Americansare on the move.

美国白叟在迁徒中。

Throughout theMidwest and the Northeast, people aged 60 and over are packing their bags andheading south along the freeway to states like Florida.

在整个中西部和东北部,60岁及以上的人正在拾掇他们的行囊,沿着高速公路向南行进到相似佛罗里达州这样的州去。

For some ofthese people the move 翁帆的父亲is permanent, but for others it is only a few months ofthe year.

对其间一些人来说,搬家是永久的;但对另一些人来说,这仅仅一年中的少数月份。

For decades,Florida has been attracting older residents.

几十年来,佛罗里达州一向招引着晚年居民。

In fact,according to the national population survey conducted recently, Florida is hometo the largest population of people aged 65 and older.

实际上,依据近期的全国人口普查,佛罗里达州有最多的65岁及以上年岁的人口。

This group makesup over 17 percent of the state’s population.

这个人群大约占到该州人口的17%

The nationalaverage was only about 12.7 percent, so it is not surprising that Florida isknown as the oldest place in the USA.

全国平均水平只不过大约是12.7%,因而也就不古怪佛罗里达州被认为是美国最老的当地。

The question is,though, why are so many people retiring and spending their pensions in Florida?

但问题是,为什么这么多的人退休后要去佛罗里达州,并且把他们的养老金花在那里呢?

People give avariety of reasons, from wanting better health care to looking for communitiesof older people.

人们给出许多不同理由,从期望更好的卫生保健到寻觅晚年人之间的沟通。

Most agree,however, that they like the climate in Florida, which, apart from a fewhurricanes, is warmer than than in other places.

但大多数人赞同,他们喜欢佛罗里达州的气候,这儿远离飓风,也比其他当地温暖。

“Younger peoplemight like snow and cold, but people my age, such weather is very tough; snow canturn into ice, which is easy to slip on. We prefer staying comfortable, andthat’s why moving somewhere warmer makes sense,” says Edna, a 78-year-old womanliving in Florida.

年青人或许喜欢雪和隆冬,但关于我这种年岁的人,那样的气候过于艰苦;雪会转变成冰,很简略使人滑倒。咱们喜欢舒适地呆着,这便是搬迁到温暖当地的意义,埃德娜,一位寓居在佛罗里达的78岁白叟说。

Most US citizensretire around the age of 62, and the trend seems to be for them to move towarmer places.

大多数美国人在62岁左右退休,他们的趋向好像便是搬到更温暖的当地去。

Florida is apopular choice for these people because of the pleasant climate and the lowcost of living there.

佛罗里达州对这些人来说是一个很受欢迎的挑选,因为这儿有适合的气候和较低的花费。

As the number ofolder Americans moving there increases, more changes are made to cater to them.

可是,跟着搬家到那里的晚年美国人增多,更多的改动发作了,以照顾到他们的需求。

For example,ambulances response faster now,

例如,急救车的反响时刻加快了,

and many houseshave bathrooms designed for older owners, with things like easy-to-use bathtubsthat reduce the risk of slips and falls.

许多房子有专为晚年业主规划的澡堂,配有如快捷式浴盆的设备以削减跌倒的危险。

Such adaptationsare making Florida even more attractive to older people.

这样的改善让佛罗里达州对晚年人更有招引力。

“My wife and Ihave come to Florida every winter for years, but now we want to buy a 轻小说文库househere because the community understands the needs of older people.

好几年了,我太太和我冬季都来佛罗里达州,但咱们现在想在这儿买房,因为这儿的社区了解晚年人的需求。

I can play bingohere, plant my herb garden and watch seagulls at the beach.

我在这儿玩宾戈游戏,在我的芳草园里栽种,在海滩上看海鸥。

Also, I knowthat we will get good medical care and will be surrounded by friends our age,”68-year-old David says.

还有,我知道咱们将得到好的医疗,周围也都是和咱们年岁相仿的朋友。”68岁的戴维说道。

Bright lights,big cities

亮光的大城市

Recently, therehas been a boom in population movements, and according to the nationalpopulation survey, 12.5 percent of the population moves every year.

最近,移动人口激增,依据全国人日普查,每年有12.5%的人口活动。

Many of thesemore mobile people are moving to large cities, of these, most are young adults,who are flexible and can adapt to new places and situations well.

其间许多是搬到大城市去,这些人中,大多是年青的成年人,他们更灵敏并能很好的习惯新的当地和环境。

“Where are allthe young people?” asks Frank Smith, owner of Oceania Inn in a small Midwesterntown.

年青人都到哪里去了啊?法兰克史密斯问,他是中西部一个小镇的大洋洲客栈的老板。

“Twenty yearsago, young people moved here and locals stayed after graduation.

二十年前,年青人搬到这儿来,本地人在大学毕业后呆在这儿。

Now, youngpeople - even my own flesh and blood - move away.”

现在,年青人---乃至我自己的亲人---都搬走了。

Across the USA,people are noticing the same thing: young people are electing to live incities.

整个美国,人们都注意到相同的事:年青人挑选住在城市里。

Young mobileadults give many different reasons for swapping their home towns for big cities

年青的成年人对将家从乡镇搬迁到大城市给出了许多不同的理由。

Some are lookingfor a good job, while some others seek exciting and fun things to do.

有些人在寻觅好的作业,而有些人是为了寻觅影响及风趣的事。

The one thingthat is clear, however, is that young people are speaking with one voice, “Tothe cities!”

但有一件事是清晰的,那便是年青人用着同一个声响说,到城市去!

Daniel, 27,explains, “Cities are more exciting.

27岁的丹尼尔解说说:城市更让人激动。

The rent ishigh, but it’s a great place to meet people and find entertainment.

租金很高,但它是遇见其别人和寻觅文娱的十分棒的当地。

Cities ha何蔓莉vetheaters, museums and big sporting events, but small towns have none of these.

城市有戏院、博物馆和大型运动赛事,但小乡镇什么也没有。

Maybe I’ll moveto a small town when I get married, but for now, I want to have fun.”

或许当我成婚的时分,我将搬到小乡镇,可是现在,我想享用高兴。

Angela, 21,adds, “I’d love to stay in the community where I grew up, but there are no jos.

21岁的安杰拉弥补道:我挺愿意住在我长大的社区里,可是那里好作业。

I have to gowhere the big companies are, because I want to be a successful accountant, nota clerk or a waitress.

我有必要到大公司地点的当地,因为我想成为成功的会计师,而不是一名职工或一名服务员。

That’s why I’llmove to Los Angeles when I graduate from university.”

那便是为什么当我大学毕业的时分我要搬到洛杉矾。

 

The wonderingRomany

漂泊的罗姆人

No group isassociated with moving and travelling than the Romany, who have been wanderingaround Europe and Asia for nearly 1,000 years.

罗姆人与搬迁和游览严密相连,在这方面没有其他民族能与他们比较。罗姆人欧洲和亚洲周游已将近1千年。

This articleexplains the history of the Romany and s炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张ome of the reasons for their movement.

本文解说了罗姆人的前史和他们搬迁的一些缘由。

Asian origins

亚洲来源

The Romany arethought to have first come from India.

罗姆人被认为起先来自印度。

Over thecenturies, they split into different groups with different names, spreadinginto many countries, mostly in Europe.

几世纪以来,他们以不同的姓名分裂为不同的集体,分布于许多国家,尤其是欧洲。

They aslodeveloped their own language, of which there are now approximately sixtyvarieties.

他们也开展自己的言语,现在大约现已有六十种。

The Romany havenever written down their history, so it is hard to cladeserverify their origins orexact history.

罗姆人从不记载他们的前史,因而很难澄清他们的来源和精确的前史。

It is alsodifficult to be precise about how many Romanuy people there are, though theCouncil of Europe has suggested a number of about 9.8 million.

虽然欧盟提出有980万的罗姆人,但很难知道他们的精确人口。

A travellingculture

搬迁文明

Many peopleoften refer to the Romany as ‘travellers’.

许多人常常称罗姆人为游览者

InEnglish-speaking countries, they are often called ‘Gypsies’ because of thebelief that they first came from Egypt.

出于罗姆人来自埃及的认知,在讲英语的国家,他们常常被称为吉普赛人

However, todayit is not considered polite to use this term.

可是,现在运用这个称号被认为没礼貌。

Their maincharacteristic is that they do not stay settled for a long period of time, andalways move on to another place.

他们首要的特征是并不会在一个当地寓居很长时刻,而是常常搬迁到另一个当地。

In the past thitemeylived in carriages pulled by horses, but nowadays thay often use trucks orcoaches.

曩昔他们寓居在马车里,但现在他们常常运用货车或公车。

They resistmaking permanent homes, and choose not to become citizens of the countries thatthey move to.

他们抵挡永久的家,不会挑选成为他们搬迁城市的居民。

Instead, theyprefer to stay in small groups, to protect and preserve their culture andfreedom.

相反的,他们喜欢一小集体的办法维护并坚持他们的文明和自在。

The Romany’scluture is rich and diverse, and has been preserved for centuries from itsroots in India.

罗姆人的文明很丰厚多样,从来源于印度以来保存了几个世纪。

There is astrong focus on large families and on wearing traditional clothes andjewellery.

他们的文明对大宗族和穿戴传统服饰和珠宝很重视。

They often knowmany different trades, so they can find work wherever they travel.

他们常常懂得许多商业活动,所以他们不管游览到哪儿都能找到作业。

The Romany lovemusic and they have influenced many musical styles throughout Europe.

罗姆人喜欢音乐,一起他们也影响了欧洲的许多音乐办法。

They have alsobeen represented in many stories, books and films.

他们也常常出现在许多故事,书本和电影中。

They are knownfor forture-telling, which is trying to predict a person’s future by looking attheir hands or special cards.

他们会算命,经过查询人们的手或经过特别的卡片猜测人们的未来。

Although theyhave traditions of their own, they also adopt the languages and religions ofthe places they move to, to show respect for the local traditions.

虽然他们有自己的传统,但他们也承受他们搬迁当地的言语和宗教,以向当地居民标明尊重。

Romany rights

罗姆人的权利

However,thoughout their long history, the Romany have faced many troubles.

可是,在罗姆人的绵长前史中,他们遇到了许多困难。

Their way oflife is very different, and their traditions are strange to people in thecountries they move to.

他们的日子办法很不相同,他们的传统对搬迁国家的人来说很古怪。

The Romany werenot trusted, and the way they dressed and looked was a reason for prejudice.

罗姆人不被信任,他们的穿戴办法是发作成见的一个原因。

People thoughttheir clothes were worn and shabby, and their darker skin, due to their easternorigins, made them look different too.

人们认为他们的衣服很寒酸,并且因为其东方血缘,他们的皮肤是深色的,是的他们看起来更不同。

With theirfrequent movements, they gained a reputation as thieves, who robbed people,moved away, and were then difficult to find.

因为他们常常搬迁,他们得到了相似掠夺,逃跑很难再找到的响马的称号。

Many people alsothought it was unfair that they lived in countries but didn’t pay taxes.

许多人也认为他们寓居在城市里却不缴税不公平。

Others thoughtthey were pests, moving to free areas of land and always looking for work.

其别人认为他们是害群之马,搬迁到自在的当地并且一向在找作业。

This collisionof culture between Europeans and the Romany led to many nations taking actionagainst them, even banning Romany groups from entering.

欧洲人与罗姆人的文明冲突导致许多国家餐区手法对立罗姆人,乃至制止他们进入。

Laws were oncemade to try and break up their families, and force them to settle and becomepart of society.

法令从前测验离散他们的宗族,并且强制他们久居成为社会的一部分。

Men and boyswere made to join the army or work, and women were forbidden from havingchildren.

男人和男孩被送去参与戎行或作业,而女人为强制不能生育。

In Norway andSwitzerland, children were even taken away from their mothers and put intoinstitutions.

在挪威和瑞士,小孩乃至被带离他们的母亲被送进公共安排。

In Spain, lawwere passed forbidding the use of the Romany lauguage and the wearing of theirtraditional clothes.

在西班牙,法令制止运用罗姆言语并且制止穿他们的传统服装。

During World WarII, the Romany, along with gays and Jews, lived in terror.

二次大战期间,罗姆人与同性恋和犹太人相同日子在惊骇里。

The Nazis classifiedthem as a dangerous group, and followed a systematic policy of hunting andkilling them in large numbers.

纳粹将他们划为危险的一类,遵从方针猎杀了许多的罗姆人。

Future relations

未来联系

Today, relationswith the Romany are much better than in the past.

现在,和罗姆人的联系比之前好多了。

This has beenhelped by the International Romany Union, which was recognized by the UnitedNations in the 1970s.

这得到了国际罗姆联合会的部分协助,这一安排在1970年由联合国安排树立。

Some modernnations are now trying to help the Romany preserve their history, language andculture.

有些现代化国家正测验协助罗姆人保存他们的前史,言语和文明。

However,incidents still happen, and many people still do not tolerate them.

可是,偶尔作业时有发作,许多人依然不能认可他们。

The topic of theRomany will co抛物线ntinue to be controversial, and the peace between them and manyEuropeans is tentative at best.

罗姆人的论题还将持续坚持争议性,但最好他们与许多欧洲人之间能坚持暂时的平和。

Their story isimportant for us to learn.

他们的故事很值得咱们学习。

It both makes usfeel sympathy for them, and also maks us think about why we tend to haveprejudice against other people just because they have a different culture or a differentway of life.

这也令咱们对他们感到怜惜,使咱们考虑为什么咱们会因为他们有不同的文明或生化办法而对其别人有成见。

 

Aids today

艾滋病现状

In an Africanvillage, eleven-year-old Ajani is bathing his younger sister. His fater is deadand his mother is sick.

在非洲的一个村庄,11岁的阿加尼在给妹妹洗澡。他的爸爸逝世了,他的妈妈患病了。

He hopes thathim mother will become healthy again, but this is not to be.

他期望他的妈妈能够恢复,但实际并不是这样。

He hears anabrupt scream -- his mother has just died of Aids, the same disease that tookhis father.

他听到一声尖叫---他的妈妈刚刚死于艾滋病,他爸爸也炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张死于相同的疾病。

He knows themeaning of the scream but -- too numb with sorrow to weep -- he gives asideways glance, and then continues to bathe his sister. What will happen tothem?

他知道这声尖叫的意义---但他对哀痛太麻痹了以至于都没有哭泣---他仅仅向周围瞥了一眼,然后持续给妹妹洗澡。他们将会遭受什么呢?

Aids is causedby a virus called HIV.

艾滋病是由一种叫艾滋病病毒所引起的。

Sometimes,people with this deadly virus live for years with no outward sympotoms, so theydo not know that they are carries.

有时,有这种闻名病毒的人许多年都没有任何外在的症状,因而他们不知道他们是病毒带着者。

When someone hasAids, the person loses the ability to fight other illnesses.

当一些人感染艾滋病毒时,人们丢掉了抵挡疾病的免疫力。

Eventually, thebody’s immune system becomes so weak that the person often becomes very illfrom usually mild sickness. So far, there is no cure for Aids.

终究,人类的免疫体系变得恰当软弱,被感染的人很简略因为往常细微的疾病而患病。到现在方位,没有治好艾滋病的办法。

HIV is spreadingacross the world at a high rate, with about 7,000 people catching the virusdaily.

艾滋病病毒在全球以高速传达,大约每天有7千人遭到感染。

The virus isspread in three ways - it can be passed on through unprotected sex, throughblood and from a mother to her child.

病毒经过三种途径传达---经过未加防护的性行为传达、经过血液和母婴传达。

The vastmajority of people receive HIV through unprotected sex with someone who alreadyhas HIV.

绝大多数带着艾滋病病毒的人事经过与HIV患者发作未加防护的性行为形成的。

HIV can also bespread through blood, for example, if a person with HIV shares needles withanother person, or if someone receives his or her blood during an operation.

艾滋病也能经过血液感染,例如,一个由艾滋病的人与其别人共用打针针,或许一些人在手术中输入了他或她的血液。

Finally, motherswith HIV can pass the virus on t北京南站o their child when they are pregant or givingbirth, or through their breast milk.

终究,有艾滋病的母亲在怀孕,出产或哺乳时能将病毒传达给他们的孩子。

To avoid havinga child with HIV, some women with HIV seek abortions.

为避免有一个患有艾滋病的孩子此种情况,一些被感染的妇女挑选流产。

Contrary to whatmany people think, HIV cannot be spread through mosquitoes, a cough or sneeze,or by merely touching someone with Aids.

与许多人所幻想的不同,艾滋病毒不会经过文字啃咬、咳嗽、打喷嚏或仅仅触碰艾滋患者而传达。

Although mostpeople are familiar with Aids and how it is spread,

虽然大多数人都了解艾滋病及其传达办法,

many peoplethink that HIV and Aids are an African problem because there are so many HIVand Aids victims in Africa.

许多人认为艾滋病病毒和艾滋病是一个非洲问题,因为那里的感染患者十分高。

However, Sincethe disease burst on the scene in the 1980s, it has become a serious problemaround the world.

可是,自从20世纪80时代发现艾滋病起,它变成了国际范围内的严峻问题。

There are over30 million people living with HIV worldwide.

国际范围内有3千万艾滋病毒带着者。

According toWorld Health Organization (WHO), more than 4 million children have died ofAids, and more than 15 million children had lost their paren一代女皇ts to Aids.

依据国际卫生安排(WHO)估量,超越400万的儿童现已因为艾滋病而逝世,超越1500万的儿童因为艾滋病失掉了爸爸妈妈。

Something mustbe done to stop this disease.

有必要做些作业来消除这一疾病。

China has alsobeen affected by the Aids.

我国也遭到了艾滋病的影响。

By the end of2009, there were about 740,000 carriers in China, among whom about 105,000 wereAids patients.

2009年末,我国有大约74万人艾滋病病毒带着者,其间有大约105千名艾滋病患者。

In a bid tocon哈尔滨师范大学阿城学院trol the problem, the government has opened labs to monitor the disease, andin 2003 it also started providing free drugs for Aids patients.

为了操控这一问题,政府开办实验室以检测艾滋病,在2003年,还开端为艾滋病患者供给免费药物。

Internationalhelp has also been very important in fighting Aids in China.

国际协助在我国的抵挡艾滋病奋斗中也十分重要。

Dr David Ho, aChinese-American Aids expert,

美籍华裔艾滋病专家何大卫博士

has devotedhimself to bringing up-to-date technology and international attention toChina’s Aids problem.

已全身心肠致力于引入最新技能、招引国际重视我国的艾滋病问题。

Since 2001,organizations such as the United Nations have also been supporting Aidseducation and medicine programmes in China.

2001年起,比方联合国的安排安排一向在支撑在我国的艾滋病教育和药品项目。

The UnitedNations has been very active in fighting Aids and HIV arou炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张nd the world.

联合国许多年来一向积极地参与到全球抵挡艾滋病和艾滋病病毒的奋斗中。

UNAIDS, anorganization within the United Nations, was founded in 1996 with the agenda ofhelping prevent the spread of AIDs.

联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS--牛肉面-联合国内部的一个安排,干1996年景立,为避免艾滋病的传达为己任。

UNAIDS providespeople with HIV testing and HIV or AIDs medical care.

联合国艾滋病规划署为人们供给艾滋病毒检测和艾滋病药物医治。

It also teachesyoung people how to prevent Aids, and sets up treatment centres,

这一安排也教训年青人防备艾滋病,树立医治中心,

where motherswith HIV can receive medicine to help keep them from passing HIV on to theirchildren.

在这些中心艾滋病病毒呈阳性的母亲可得到药物以避免母婴传达。

The work ofinternational organizations is even more important when you consider how muchmore severe the situation could become.

当你考虑到情况会变得多严峻时,国际安排的作业就显得更重要。

Between 2000 and2020, over 68 million people will die of Aids.

2000年到2020年期间,将有超越6800万的人将死于艾滋病。

The number ofchildren losting both parents to Aids is also expected to rise.

预期因为艾滋病失掉双亲的孩子的数量也会添加。

While losingone’s parents to this disease seems terrible and unfair, Ajani and his sisterare fortunate.

虽然因为艾滋病失掉了爸爸妈妈看起来很可怕并且不公平,阿加尼和他的妹妹是走运的。

Their grandfatheris now caring for them,

他们的爷爷正在照顾他们,

and becausetheir mother had access to prescription Aids medicines when she was pregnant,they did not get HIV from her.

并且因为他们的妈妈在怀孕期间运用了处方艾滋病药物,他们没有从她那里感染艾滋病病毒。

Ajani now wantsto be a doctor when he grows up.

阿加尼现在想要在长大后成为一名医师。

He believes thateducating as well as medical treatment is the key to stopping the disease inthe future.

他信任教育和药物医治是在未来消除这一疾病的要害。

 

Just say NO!

就说不!

Taking drugsoften begin as just experiment, but it often ends in a messy situation.

吸毒常常开端以测验的办法开端,但结局常常是一团糟。

In this article,we will discuss the dangers of this vice.

在这篇文章里,咱们将评论啃咬毒品的危险。

Why do peopletake drugs?

人们为什么吸毒?

People takedrugs illegally for a number of reasons.

人们违法吸毒有许多原因。

Some people trythem because they are curious.

一些人测验它们是因为猎奇。

Others takedrugs to rebel against their families or society.

另一些人吸毒是为了抵挡他们的家庭或许社会。

A number ofpeople also try drugs for the first time because they want to be accepted bytheir friends who are drug users.

还有许多人第一次吸毒是因为他们想被他们的吸毒朋友所承受。

What happenswhen people take drugs?

人们吸毒时发作什么?

There are threemain classes of drugs, each of which has a different effect on the body.

首要有三大类的毒品,每一种对身体的影响不同。

Some drugs maymake people feel happy, while others can make users feel tired or see thingsthat are not really there.

一些毒品或许让人们感到愉悦,而其他一些会让啃咬者感到疲惫,或许看见一些实践并不存在的东西。

Although thesedrugs can produce different reactions, they can all make people addicted.

虽然这些毒品会发作不同的反响,但它们都会使人上瘾。

One class ofdrugs is called uppers.

一类毒品被称为兴奋剂。

Uppers canincrease the heart rate and make users feel very energetic and happy.

兴奋剂能够加快心脏跳动速率,让啃咬者感到精力充沛,心情昂奋。

The side effectsof drugs in this class include difficulty sleeping, nervous tension, heartattacks and, in some cases, death.

这一类毒品的副作用包含难以入眠、精神紧张、心脏病,在一些个例中,还会逝世。

An example of anupper is a drug called speed, which is usually taken as a tablet or capsule.

一个兴奋剂的比方便是一种被称为快速丸的毒品,一般是以药片或许胶囊的办法服用。

Speed is oftenused as a weight-loss pill, because it reduces one’s appetite.

快速丸一般是用作减肥药,因为它削减人们的胃口。

Some uppers arelegal, such as nicotine, which is found in cigars and cigarettes, and caffeine,which is in coffee, tea and cocoa.

一些兴奋剂是合法的,如尼古丁,可在雪茄或卷烟中找到;还有在咖啡、茶和可可豆中都有咖啡因。

As smokers maytell you, people can become easily addicted to nicotine, which is why they havetrouble quitting smoking.

正如吸烟者或许通知你的那样,尼古丁是十分简略上瘾的,这便是为什么许多人很难戒烟的原因。

Another class ofdrugs is often referred to as downers.

另一类毒品常常被称为镇静剂。

Drugs in thisclass can decrease the heart rate, make users sleepy and may give users anartificial sense of pleasure -- though this effect fades after a time.

这一类的毒品能够下降心跳速率,让啃咬者感到疲倦,并能让啃咬者取得一种愉悦的错觉---虽然这种作用少纵即逝。

Downers areknown to cause headaches, feelings of sadness and a weak pulse.

镇静剂据悉能够引起头痛,伤感和脉息衰弱。

In somesituations, using downers can lead to death.

在一些情况下,便用镇静剂可导致逝世。

An example ofthis type of drug is heroin, which is usually taken as a shot or is sniffed.

这类毒品的一个比方便是海洛因,它被用来打针或许啃咬。

Heroin is one ofthe most powerful drugs in the world.

海洛因是国际上最强效的毒品。

Even a smallamount of it is enough to slow the brain and the body’s reactions, and heroinusers usually become addicted and begin a downward slide after only a few usesof the drug.

即便少数的海洛因已满足下降大脑和身体的反映速度,并且海洛因啃咬者能成瘾并且运用极少数毒品时就开端有所反映。

Alcohol is alsoclassified as a downer, and although it is legal, it can damage the liver anddo great harm if consumed in large quantities.

酒精也被归类到镇静剂,虽然它是合法的,但它会损害肝脏,假如许多饮用会发作巨大损害。

The last groupof drugs can change the way people think and see the world.

毒品的终究一类便是改动人们考虑和看待国际的那些毒品。

They confuse thebrain and sometimes cause people to see and/or hear things that are not real.

他们使大脑紊乱,有时分让人们看到和/或听到并不存在的东西。

An example ofthis type of drugs is LSD, which produces reactions ranging from increasedheart rate to acute anxiety.

这种毒品的一个比方便是迷幻药,它会发作从心跳加快到急剧焦虑等一系列反响。

In severe cases,LSD users may kill themselves because of what they see and/or hear.

在严峻情况下,迷幻药运用者或许因为他们看到或听到什么而自杀。

While in thebeginning some people may even enjoy abusing drugs, in the end drug users findthemselves trapped in a prison from which they cannot escape. Drug abuse oftensucks the life right out of a person.

而一开端,一些人乃至沉迷于吸毒,终究,吸毒者发现他们进入了无法逃脱的牢笼。毒品将人的抽离了日子。

What does thelaw say about taking drugs?

法令对吸毒是怎样说的?

Most drugs areillegal unless they are given to you by a doctor.

毒品是不合法的,除非是医师供给的。

The type andquantity of illegal drugs a person is carrying when caught by the policedetermine the punishment.

一个人被差人捕获时带着的不合法毒品的品种和数量决议了赏罚的轻重。

Punishmentsrange from a small fine and a few days in prison to a large fine and even thedeath sentence.

赏罚从小的罚款、拘留几天到大笔罚款和死刑。

How can drugusers seek help?

吸毒者怎样寻求协助?

Many drug userswish they could start over again. While they cannot wipe away the stain of thepast, they can certainly move forward.

许多吸毒者期望能够从头日子。虽然他们不能擦掉曩昔,但他们能够向前进发。

They shouldfirst admit their problem with drugs, and then they should seek help from ahospital or drug clinic.

他们首要应该供认他们有毒品问题,然后到医院或许戒毒所寻求协助。

Programmesoffered at such hospitals and clinics may include

医院和戒毒所供给的毒品恢复方案或许包含

a stay inhospital and taking special medicines to help break the addiction.

住院、服用特其他药物协助戒毒。

Since manyformer drug abusers have psychological problems, they often need support groupswhere they can talk about their strugles and find new ways to manage in theworld.

因为许多前吸毒者有心思问题,他们常常需求援助团来倾诉他们的反抗进程以及寻觅对待国际的新办法。

The easiest wayto avoid the health problems and hardships caused by illegal drugs is not touse them in the first place.

最简略的避兔健康问题和戒毒苦楚的办法便是一开端就不要运用不合法毒品。

Saying NO todrugs is an important part of protecting one’s health and life for the future.

向毒品说不,是维护一个人未来健康和日子的重要部分。

 

Fight againstcyber炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张crime

反网络违法的奋斗

Ladies andgentlemen, as the Internet has expanded in recent years, the opportunities forcrime have expanded as well.

女士们,先生们,近几年来因特网敏捷扩张,违法的时机也相同随之添加。

Committing陈婷 crimeonline is no longer a theoretical possibility.

进行网络违法现已不再是理论上有或许性。

We are facingcriminals who realize that can make money with little risk of being caught.

咱们正面临着这些违法分子:他们认为能够赚钱而简直没有被捕的危险。

Fighting thiskind of crime, which is called cybercrime, requires great effort and involvesmany countries working together.

冲击这样的违法,即网络违法,要求极大的尽力和各国协力作业。

Cybercrimerefers to any criminal offence related to the Internet.

网络违法指任何与电脑相关的违法。

The Council ofEurope has classified online crimes into four categories.

欧洲议会将网络违法分为四大类。

Firstly, thecouncil lists crimes related to a lack of proper Internet security,

首要,欧洲议会列出了与缺少恰当的网络安全相关的违法,

such asdownloading or deleting other people’s files without permission, and spreadingcomputer viruses.

例如不经答应下载或删去其别人的文件,以及散播计算机病毒。

Second, itrecords crimes that are usually committed without a computer, but which canoccur over the Internet.

第二,它指出了与电脑并非特别相关的违法,但也可不经过电脑来完成,

For example,some criminals use the Internet to cheat others of their money.

例如,一些罪犯经过电脑骗得别人金钱。

Third, thecouncil mentions websites which contain offensive information or encouragehatred and violence.

第三,它提到了含有得罪性内容的网站,或许煽动仇视和暴力的网站。

Last of all, itnames those offences related to intellectual property (intellectual property isa design, patent, book, film, etc., that the law prevents other people fromcopying).

终究,它界说了与知识产权相关的违法(知识产权是一个规划、专利、书或电影等,法令制止其别人抄袭)。

At the Councilof Europe, we feel that it is important to classify such crimes, as it helps usassess the problem of cybercrime.

在欧洲议会,咱们感到,这样清晰的分类是必要的,能够协助咱们评价网络违法问题。

All Internetusers are affected by cybercrime in one way or another.

一切的因特网用户都直接或间接地遭到网络违法的影响。

Most people havereceived computer viruses, and many have been the targets of e-mail that try tocheat them of money.

许多人都收到过电脑病毒,还有许多人以电子邮件为欺诈金钱的方针。

Some criminalssend e-mails promising money or cheques.

一些罪犯发送电子邮件,许诺给钱或支票。

The peoplereceiving these e-mails are asked to supply information about their bankaccounts, and in the end, their money is stolen.

收到这些电子邮件的人被要求供给他们银行账户信息,作用他们的钱被盗了。

Although thereare an increasing number of such cases against people, crime against largecompanies is a bigger problem.

虽然相似的针对个人的事例的数目不断增加,但针对大公司的违法是一个更大的问题。

Large companiesare ripe targets for these criminals, who are often information technologyexperts.

大公司对网络罪犯来说是适合的方针,这些网络罪犯常常是信息技能专家。

Let me give yousome statistics.

让我给你一些统计数据。

A survey conductedin 2010 by the Computer Security Institute, a private organization in the USA,

美国的一家私人安排,电脑安全协会,2010年进行的一项查询

showed that 45.6per cent of the 351 biggest companies and government agencies had had theirsecurity systems broken into in the previous year.

标明在被查询的351家最大的公司和政府安排中,有45.6%的单位安全体系在前一年遭到侵略。

Securityconsultants tell us that cybercrime is costing fims worldwide hundreds ofbillions of dollars every year.

安全参谋通知咱们,网络违法每年消耗全国际范围内公司的数千亿美元。

In some cases,the criminals steal money from the companies.

有时分,违法分子从公司盗取金钱。

In many othercases, company databases or customer secrets are stolen, and the companies mustpay the thieves money to keep them from leaking the contents.

许多情况下,公司数据或客户秘要被盗,公司需求付出窃贼金钱以令其不走漏被盗内容。

Considering howbad the situation with cybercrime against companies has become, many peoplewonder why so little is known about this.

考虑到针对公司的网络违法的情况有多么恶劣,许多人质疑为什么咱们关于这些违法知之甚少。

The main reasonis that most cybercrime is not reported.

首要原因是大多数网络违法都没有被陈述

Until now, mostcompanies have been unwilling to report cases of cybercrime.

到现在为止,大多数公司不愿意陈述网络违法的事例。

They fear thatby doing so, they will lose customers, who may think that the company cannotprotect their confidential information or their money.

他们忧虑这样做,他们就会失掉顾客,因为顾客或许认为公司不能维护他们的秘要信息或金钱。

All of this ismade more difficult by the legal situation regarding cybercrime.

有关网络违法的法令情况使局势愈加杂乱。

Cybercrime is sonew that many governments have not yet passed laws against it, and there aremany holes in their legal systems.

网络违法是十分新的概念,许多政府还没有经过针对它的法令,在他们的法令体系中有许多缝隙。

Some countrieshave laws against traditional crimes committed using computers, but others haveno laws against cybercrime at all.

一些国家有针对经过电脑进行传统违法的法令,但有些国家底子没有任何针对网络违法的法令。

In addition,most countries do not have arrangements for dealing with suspects from othercountries who may have committed cybercrime.

别的,大多数国家都没有怎样抵挡施行网络违法的他国嫌犯的手法。

These criminalscan be anywhere and can move fast, especially in Europe, where visas are notrequired to travel to many countries.

这些罪犯或许在任何当地,能够敏捷移动,尤其是在欧洲,在那里的许多国家游览是不需求签证的。

Thus, it isdifficult to catch criminals of cybercrime.

因而,要追捕到网络罪犯是很困难的。

The only answerto this problem is international cooperation.

这一问题的仅有处理办法便是国际协作。

The technicalskills of these criminals are among the best in the world, which means thatgovernments must join forces to keep up with the advances in technology used bythe criminals.

这些罪犯的技能水平在国际归于先进水平,这意味着政府有必要调集他们的技能资源来跟进罪犯。

It is alsoimportant to draft new laws and negotiate international standards for fightingcybercrime.

拟定新的法令并为其商谈类冲击网络违法的国际规范也很重要。

This will allowstates to follow criminals across borders.

这将答应各国跨境追寻罪犯。

Steps have beentaken towards this. In 2001, the Council of Europe produced an agreement oncybercrime,

人们现已采纳过程来到达这个方针。2001年,欧洲议会拟定了有关网络违法的协议,

which has beenapproved by the USA, Canada, Japan and South Africa, as well as by manyEuropean countries.

美国、加拿大、日本和南非以及许多欧洲国家现已在协议上签字。

The Council ofEurope’s agreement is only a first steps.

欧洲议会的协议仅仅第一步。

One of thefathers of the Internet, Vinton Cert, would no doubt agree that teamwork is akey to dealing with cybercrime,

因特网创始人之一文特瑟夫,会毫无疑问地认同团队协作是抵挡网络违法的要害,

as he has saidthat the problem of cybercrime is so huge that it requires the United Nationsto form a special agency to act.

因为他曾说,网络违法的问题是一个十分大的问题,需求联合国树立特别安排来履行。

Certainly,governments and private businesses must work together to stop the widespreadproblem of cybercrime.

当然,政府和私人企业有必要一起协作,以消除全球网络违法问题。

 

You andintellectual property

你与知识产权

What isintellectual property?

什么是知识产权?

The WorldIntellectual Property Organization (WIPO) recognizes intellectual property asideas, that belong to a person, organization or company.

国际知识产权安排(WIPO)将知识产权界说为智力创造作用,归于一个人,一个安排或公司。

Intellectualproperty can include inventions, patents, drawing, symbols, designs, novels,films and music.

知识产权包含创造、专利、画作、商标、规划、小说、电影以及音乐。

Why are therelaws to protect intellectual property?

为什么有法令维护知识产权?

Laws have beenpassed in most countries that make it illegal to copy intellectual propertywithout paying the person who created the material.

大多数国家都经过了法令,清晰了不付出创造者酬劳而仿制知识产权的行为是违法的。

If someonespends his or her time, effort and money writing a book, for example, he or shedeserves to be paid for it.

例如,假如有人花了他或她的时刻、精力和赌球心得金钱来写一本书,他或她也值得别人为此付费。

In the same way,if a company spends money researching and developing new products, that companyshould be paid for its work.

相同的,假如一家公司花了金钱研讨和开发新产品,那么该公司也应该为此得到酬劳。

Research anddevelopment is very important in today’s business world, and ideas are morevaluable than many material things in the physical world.

研讨和开发在今日的商业国际中十分重要,在实际国际,点子比其他许多物质东西更有价值。

For example, theraw materials used for making a car are not worth much until they are made intoa car.

例如,制造小轿车的原资料并不怎样值钱,但但当它被制形成小轿车,它就值钱了。

What gives addedvalue to these raw material, then, is the technology used. The technology isintellectual property.

那么,为这些质料供给附加值的便是所运用的技能。

Further, if acar company becomes popular because of its cars, then the company’s brand name,the model name of the car, and even the style of the car may all have value asintellectual property.

并且,参加一家轿车公司因为他的轿车变得知名,那么这个公司的品牌称号,轿车的规范称号,乃至是轿车的款式或许都具有知识产权价值。

For thesereason, it is also considered illegal to sell a product with the brand name ofanother company or product on it.

因为这些原因,收购标有其他品牌的产品也是违法的。

What are theproblems?

问题是什么?

Many countrieshave no passed laws to protect intellectual property until very recently.

许多国家直到最近才经过了维护知识产权的法令。

In thesecountries, some companies have become rich by producing pirated goods, such ascopies of expensive watches or purses, or copies of CDs or DVDs.

在这些国家,一些公司经过出产盗版产品赚钱,比方仿制贵重手表和钱包,或许盗版CDDVD

To help controlsuch problems and smooth the progress of international trade, the World TradeOrganization (WTO) was formed.

为协助操控这样的问题和促进国际贸易平稳开展,国际贸易安排(WTO)树立了。

The WTO passeslaws to protect intellectual property.

国际贸易安排经过了法令来维护知识产权。

One of theconditions of belonging to the organization is that these laws must be put intoeffect by member countries.

参加该安排的条件之一便是这些法令在成员国有必要履行。

For exmple, whenyou enter a country which is a member of the WTO, your lugga成都地铁3号线ge may be inspectedby customs to make sure that you are not trying to import pirated goods, or thepolice may check street stands and shops to make sure that the goods they areselling are authenic.

例如,当你进入世贸安排成员国时,你的行李或许会被海关检查,炎亚纶,丁程鑫-春天万物复苏百家争鸣的时节可是对过敏性体质主张保证你没有妄图带着盗版物品,或许差人会检查街边摊位和商铺,保证他们所出售的产品是正品。

Some people maythink that since they are not running a business or stealing business ideas,intellectual property laws do not affect them .

有人或许认为假如他们没有经商或许偷盗商业构思,知识产权法令就不会影响到他们。

However, ineveryday life, we are now faced with decisions about how to respect intellectualproperty rights.

可是,在日常日子中,咱们现在面临着怎样维护知识产权的决议。

For example,most people have downloaded videos free流产后多久能够怀孕 from the Internet.

例如,大多数人从网上免费下载视频资料。

Many have alsocopied and shared computer software. All of this is illegal.

许多人仿制并同享了计算机软件。一切这些都是违法的。

In 2005 alone,film companies in Hollywood lost around $3 to $4 billion because of illegalcopying and downloading from the Internet.

2005年一年中,因为不合法仿制和网络不合法下载,好莱坞的电影公司就丢失了大约3040亿美元。

In 2009, 41 percent of software on computers worldwide was pirated, which equaled a loss of$53 billion for the people who made the software.

2003年,全国际电脑中41%的软件是盗版的,这对原开发者来说恰当于530亿美元的丢失。

Even morewidespread is the copying of music, especially with the development of newcomputer programmes.

更广为流传的问题是音乐的复制,尤其是跟着新电脑程序的开展。

What should wedo?

咱们应该做什么?

We should notbuy pirated products or download pirated music and films.

顾客不应该购买盗版产品或许下载盗版音乐和电影。

People who dothese things cost worldwide industries billions of dollars.

人们这样做,使国际工业丢失数亿美元。

If you want tobuy a product that you suspect to be pirated, such as a purse, you should askto see a certificate or other evidence showing that it is real.

假如你买了你怀疑是盗版的产品,如钱包,能够要求检查标明其是真品的证明或其他依据。

At present,pirated music and software are a serious challenge to the music and softwareindustries.

现在,盗版音乐和软件是音乐和软件这两个工业的严峻应战。

Therefore, manycompanies are protecting their intellectual property by taking people to court,and by adding special software to their CDs and DVDs in order to keep them fromcopied.

因而,许多公司正经过申述,将特别软件放在其CDDVD中以防其被复制的办法来维护知识产权。

To help furtherthe fight against intellectual property theft, people should buy CDs and DVDsfrom respected shops instead of downloading them free or buying piratedversions.

为协助反盗版奋斗愈加深化,人们应该在值得信任的商铺购买CDDVD,而不是免费下载或许购买盗版版别。

Remember thatcompanies expect to be compensated for their material, and that they will notsimply accept an apology.

记住,许多公司期待着给它们的资料付费,不会简略地承受一个抱歉。

Many people havebeen fined or even gone to prison for pirated goods.

许多人因为盗版物品被罚款乃至进入监狱。

Please remember,it is important to be careful and be legal!

请记住,慎重和合法十分重要!


the end
春天万物复苏百花齐放的季节但是对过敏性体质建议